Apocrypha

OLD BOOKS AND CANDLE © Spaxia | Dreamstime.comThe English word "apocrypha" comes from the Greek word ἀπόκρυφα, which means "those having been hidden away". The general term is usually applied to the books that were considered by the Church as useful, but not divinely inspired. "Non-canonical" books are texts of uncertain authenticity.  Writings where the work is seriously questioned (because of the content or the alleged author) are often considered apocryphal. Given that different denominations have different ideas about what constitutes canonical scripture, there are several different versions of the apocrypha.

While these writings are not Scripture, the historical and cultural information contained in them is often very valuable and insightful.

 

We hope you will find benefit in these apocryphal references on Psalm11918.org.

 

The Book of Jasher

JUDAS SCROLLThe Book of Jasher is mentioned twice in Scripture (Joshua 10:13 and 2 Samuel 1:18) and was considered by both Joshua and Samuel to be a reliable source of information. The web pages of this section record what is commonly believed to be that very same Book of Jasher.

Do we know this with certainty? No, not with the information currently available to us.

Please note that, while the Book of Jasher is mentioned in Scripture, the book itself is not Scripture. It is, however, a valuable work of historical and apocryphal literature.

 

MACHABEUSZE - Wojciech Stattler 1842The First Book of Maccabees

1 Maccabees is a deuterocanonical book of the Bible which was written by a Jewish author, probably about 100 BC, after the restoration of an independent Jewish kingdom. It is included in the Christian Catholic and Eastern Orthodox canons. Protestants and Jews regard it as generally reliable historically but not a part of Scripture.

Some Protestants consequently regard 1 Maccabees as part of the Apocrypha, useful for reading in the church though not canonical.

The apocryphal and historical book of 1 Maccabees provides insight into the prophecies of Daniel as well as the historical background of the celebration of Channukah.

 

ODES OF SOLOMON © The Psalm 119 FoundationThe Odes of Solomon are attributed to an author in the first three centuries and is almost certainly not the writing of King Solomon.  There are some highly questionable and potentially offensive passages in this text. 

It is provided for the purposes of information and study only.

-Psalm11918.org

 

 

This pseudepigraphical work contains 42 hymns of a lyrical character. They are probably Christian in origin. Their composition is variously dated between the 1st and 3rd cent., the late 2nd cent. being most likely. They were probably written in Syria, but whether their original language was Greek or Syriac is disputed.

THE DIDACHE based on DEATH EARTH AND BEAUTIFUL LANDSCAPE © Lukas Gojda | Dreamstime.comThe Didache (Greek for "teaching") is a document that circulated among the early believers in the first and second century.  It is attributed to the twelve apostles as a collective work of teachings of the Master, Messiah Yeshua.  It outlines a standard of living out a life of faith for those early believers much in the same way that a manual might identify the expected behavior of members of a church today.

 

The Columbia Encyclopedia offers this:

Didache [Gr.,=teaching], early Christian work written in Greek, called also The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Dates for its composition suggested by scholars have ranged from AD 50 to AD 150. Discovered in 1875 by Bryennios, Greek Orthodox metropolitan of Nicomedia, it is an invaluable primary source for the primitive church. The first part is a collection of moral precepts, perhaps based on rabbinical teachings (there are many quotations from the Old Testament); the second portion gives directions for baptism and the Eucharist; the third contains directions for bishops and deacons. The Didache may be of composite authorship. A short work, it has been published in English translation in collections of patristic literature. 1

 

Below is an English translation of this document translated by J.B. Lightfoot and J.R. Harmer in 1891.  An interlinear form of this document is available here.  The Psalm11918.org team has also compiled some observations from the Didache.

Footnotes

1. "Didache." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (December 6, 2009). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Didache.html  [back]

The Didache (Greek for "teaching") is a document that circulated among the early believers in the first and second century. It is attributed to the twelve apostles as a collective work of teachings of the Master, Messiah Yeshua. It outlines a standard of living out a life of faith for those early believers much in the same way that a manual might identify the expected behavior of members of a church today.

 

The Columbia Encyclopedia offers this:

Didache [Gr.,=teaching], early Christian work written in Greek, called also The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles. Dates for its composition suggested by scholars have ranged from AD 50 to AD 150. Discovered in 1875 by Bryennios, Greek Orthodox metropolitan of Nicomedia, it is an invaluable primary source for the primitive church. The first part is a collection of moral precepts, perhaps based on rabbinical teachings (there are many quotations from the Old Testament); the second portion gives directions for baptism and the Eucharist; the third contains directions for bishops and deacons. The Didache may be of composite authorship. A short work, it has been published in English translation in collections of patristic literature. 1

 

Below is an interlinear translation (Greek text with a literal English translation immediately below it) based upon work by Philip Dybel. This format is intended for detailed study rather than plain reading. A non-interlinear translation by J.B. Lightfoot and J.R. Harmer is available here for easier reading.

Footnotes

1. "Didache." The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (December 6, 2009). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1E1-Didache.html [back]

Torah Portion

ויגשׁ (Vayigash)

 

 

or view this week's triennial cycle reading.

Today is

Yom Rivi'i, 4 Tevet, 5779

Wednesday, December 12, 2018

 

Learn more about this date in history.