Tzom Gedalia - The Fast of Gedalia
c 582-581 BCE- Gedalia ben Achikam, appointed governor of Judea by Nebuchadnezzar to rule the Jews after the destruction of the first Temple, was murdered by Yishmael ben Nesanya. Some sources say that Gedalia was slain on the first day of Tishrei, but the fast was postponed till after Rosh HaShanah, since fasting is prohibited during a festival. Upon his assassination, the last of the Jews of Judea were expelled from the Land of Israel.
After the Hasmoneans instituted writing the LORD's name on contracts in reaction to the Greek prohibition to mention the LORD's name, the Chachomim (Sages) cancelled their decision on this day to prevent His name from being desecrated. This day was like a Yom Tov (Rosh Hashana 18b).
September 15, 1825- An American diplomat named Mordechai Manuel Noah laid the foundation stone for Ararat, the first modern-day attempt to establish a national Jewish homeland. To implement his plan, Noah petitioned the New York State legislature for rights to Grand Island, a 27-square-mile parcel of land located between Buffalo, New York and Niagara Falls. Noah also levied a "redemption tax" upon each Jew in the world. Despite a grand opening ceremony, the plan fizzled when no Jews moved to Ararat / Grand Island.