586 BCE- The Babylonian armies of King Nebuchadnezar breached the walls of Jerusalem prior to the destruction of the first Temple. During the 70-year exile in Babel, this day was the fourth public fast day, but after the breaking of the wall of the Second Temple on the 17th of Tammuz, the fast of commemoration was switched to that day. (Talmud, Rosh Hashanah and Tur Orach Chaim 549)
June 20, 1230- Jews were massacred in Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
1244- At least twenty wagons loaded with Gemaras (Talmud) and commentaries were burned in France. The incident occured on Friday of Parshat Chukat. (There were no printing presses at that time, and many writings of the Sages were lost forever). The decree was even more severe in Paris, where it was announced that every Jew who had a Talmud in his home would be exiled from France.
July 11, 1962- Yahrzeit of Rabbi Yehuda Maimon, first Israeli minister of religious affairs, and founder of the Rabbi Kook Foundation.