1096- In the early 1070s, the Turks commenced an offensive against the Europe pilgrims in Jerusalem. Pope Gregory VII offered his help to defend the Greek Christians, but the army he promised never materialized. In 1095, his successor, Urban II, began to call for a holy war to liberate the Christians in Jerusalem. By the next year more than 100,000 men had rallied to his call, forming the first Crusade. Urban and the local clergymen in Europe felt that the Crusade had another purpose as well—to annihilate all non-Christians in Europe who refused to convert to Christianity. On their way to Holy Land the mobs of crusaders and local inhabitants attacked many Jewish communities, most notably in the Rhineland towns of Worms, Germany and Mainz. On the Shabbat, the 8th of Iyar, the Jews of Speyer were also attacked. Yet most of them were allowed refuge in the bishop's castle and neighbouring towns (e. g. Heidelberg).
1516- The first ghetto for Jews established in Venice.
1667- Mass anti-Jewish riots break out in Lemberg.