1556- Portuguese Marranos who had reverted to Judaism were burned in Ancona, Italy by order of the Pope. The atrocity of Ancona led the famous Dona Gracia of the House of Nasi to spearhead a boycott against the port of Ancona as a countermeasure to the Pope's repressive policies. This marked the first Jewish effort, since the beginning of the Diaspora, at a far-reaching, concerted drive by the free Jewish communities of the world to hit back at their enemies.
1857- The establishment of Jewish congregations in Lower Austria was prohibited.
1943- Mordecai Anielewicz, commander-in-chief of the uprising in the ghetto of Warsaw, was killed in action.
1948- The town of Bet-She'an was captured by the Hagana [a predecessor to the IDF].