c 1409 BCE- The traditional memorial of the death of Joshua. He was born in Egypt and he led Israel in the first decisive battle against Amalek (Exodus ch. 17). Joshua was Moses' prime disciple, and accompanied him partway up Mount Sinai. He was also one of the 12 spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. Before Moses died, Hashem had him appoint Joshua as his successor. Assuming the leadership of Israel after Moshe's passing, Joshua led the Jewish people into the Holy Land, where the Jordan River miraculously split. His first conquest was Jericho. These and other events are described in the Book of Joshua. He passed away at the age of 110, in the 28th year of his leadership.
April 25, 1881- A petition signed by 250,000 Germans was presented to the government requesting the barring of foreign Jews from admission into Germany. This petition marked the opening of modern German anti-Semitism.
May 1, 1943- 130,000 Jews of Amsterdam were deported to Sobibor and Auschwitz.