1223- The first edition of the Sefer Hachinuch was written.
July 8, 1941- In Vilna, Poland, 500 Jews were shot. Many others were arrested and taken to concentration camps, by the Lithuanian Security Service. According to the German reports, 500 Jews were shot every day for a week. Jewish property was confiscated.
July 8, 1941- Compulsory wearing of the yellow star was decreed for all Jews in the Baltic States (Balkans).
June 28, 1942- The Germans captured the city of Minsk (Russia), trapping about 40,000 Jews in the city. The German army commanded by Rommel reached El Alamein, a town in Northern Egypt, thereby placing the Land of Israel in grave danger. Praise G-d, after the leaders in Israel held massive prayer rallies, the Germans retreated, under constant attack by Allied forces.