Jan. 27, 1790- The French extend active citizenship to the Sephardic Jews of Bordeaux. Their poorer Ashkenazic brothers in lsace-Lorraine continued to struggle for rights for another year and a half.
Feb. 9,1941- Nazis provoked the first anti-Jewish riots in Amsterdam, but the Jews successfully fought off their attackers.
Jan. 18, 1943- As the Germans began their second deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto, Jews in the Warsaw ghetto put up their first resistance to the Nazi effort at liquidation. The deportation was halted within a few days; only 5,000 Jews were removed instead of 8,000 as planned. The Nazis retreated, only to return three months later, at which time the Warsaw uprising started in earnest.
Jan. 26, 1945- The Russian army liberated the last 2,819 survivors of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The gas chambers of Auschwitz II (Birkenau) were blown up by German troops in November 1944 in an attempt to hide their crimes. In January 1945 the Nazis began to evacuate the facility; most of the prisoners were ordered on a death march, which lasted for weeks in the cold and snow. In the end, some7,000 people survived Auschwitz; over one million perished.