c 589 BCE - The armies of Nebuchadnezzar, the Babylonian emperor, began the siege of Jerusalem. The siege lasted thirty months. On 9 Tammuz 586 BCE, (the 17th day of Tammuz was designated to commemorate this event), the walls of the city were breached, and on the 9th of Av of that year the first Holy Temple was destroyed. The Jewish people were exiled to Babylonia for 70 years. The 10th of Tevet is still observed today by Jews as a public fast day, as mentioned by the prophet Zechariah (8:19).
c 588 BCE- One year after Nebuchadnezzar's siege of Jerusalem, Jermiah the prophet bought a field and prophesized that "Houses, fields and vineyards will yet again be bought in this land." (Jeremiah 32:15). This gave hope to generations of Jews for a return to the Holy Land-- a prophecy that we have seen fulfilled in modern times.
c 37 BCE- King Herod captured Jerusalem.
January 9, 1941- 3,000 Jews were killed in Bucharest riots.