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Names of the Book

ISAIAH'S LIPS ANOINTED WITH FIRE- Benjamin West

English:  Isaiah
Hebrew:  ישׁעיהוּ
Transliterated:  Yeshayahu
Other names:   

 

whoWho

Wrote the book:  Isaiah son of Amoz
Are the key people:  Isaiah and Shear-Jashub and Maher-Shalal-Hash-Baz (his sons)
Is it written to:  The people of the northern kingdom of Israel and the southern kingdom of Judah

 

whatWhat

G-d's Judgment (Isaiah 1-39)
G-d's Comfort  (Isaiah 40-66)

 

whenWhen

Was it written:  c 715 BCE
Did the events occur:  c 757-712 BCE
Was it canonized:  c 499-100 BCE
(see the Timeline of the Tanakh)

 

whereWhere

Was it written:  Jerusalem
Did the events occur:  in and around Jerusalem

 

whyWhy

Isaiah was written to inform us that: 
G-d is Holy.
Violation of G-d's covenant results in punishment.
G-d provides a Savior.
G-d is our only source of hope.

 

whyIntroduction

The book of Isaiah is simultaneously historical narrative and prophetic vision describing the sins of Israel and the coming consequence for that sin. Isaiah prophesied as the northern kingdom of Israel was falling deeper into a period of apostasy in the shadow of Assyrian aggression. He delivered G-d's word and a call to repentance to a people who were both "deaf and blind" and refused to heed his warnings of pending destruction. Isaiah warned the people of Judah that their sins would bring G-d's judgment upon them, yet at the same time, he also declared that G-d would use Cyrus the Persian to return them from captivity and exile. Isaiah writes of "a servant," who would be "wounded for our transgressions", that would accomplish G-d's work of salvation. The concluding chapters of the book provide a comforting illustration of the new creation where G-d will rule as King and establish eternal peace.

 

 


 

Chapter Description
  Chapters 1-35 contain words of judgment against Israel
1 Isaiah, the son of Amoz has a vision concerning Judah and Jerusalem.
Israel has rebelled against G-d and is sick with sin.
G-d has brought judgment against Israel and devastated the nation which He compares to Sodom and Gomorrah.
G-d despises Israel's worship because of their sin: injustice and ruthless exploitation of widows and orphans.
Those who forsake the LORD will come to an end.
2 In the last days, the mountain of the house of the LORD will become chief of the mountains.
G-d will judge between the nations.
Nations will hammer their swords into plowshares and spears into pruning hooks.
The LORD of hosts will have a day of reckoning against all who are proud and lofty.
3 The elders of Israel have permitted evil to persist among the people.
The women of Judah behave perversely with seductive eyes and mincing steps.
4 Isaiah prophesies of a coming day of restoration.
5 Isaiah describes the corruption that is prevalent in his time.
In a parable, Israel is described as G-d's vineyard.
Isaiah pronounces woes against those who persist in sin and iniquity.
6 Isaiah sees the Lord sitting on a throne, high and exalted.
A seraphim touches Isaiah's lips with a burning coal.
Isaiah is commissioned to go and prophesy to the people of Judah.
7 Rezin goes up wage war against Jerusalem but does not conquer it.
The LORD speaks to Ahaz, king of Judah, and tells him to ask for a sign of His deliverance.
Ahaz declines and G-d chooses the sign: a virgin will be with child and bear a son named Immanuel.
8 Isaiah has a son who serves as a sign of G-d's prophecy against Damascus and Samaria.
Assyria will distress Judah.
Isaiah declares his confidence that G-d will prevail.
Assyria will not completely destroy Judah.
9 Isaiah prophesies of the coming Prince of Peace.
Judgment is coming on Israel for her hypocrisy.
10 Woe is pronounced upon Assyria.
Assyria will humiliate Israel.
Assyria will be punished because it did not follow G-d's plan to chasten Israel.
A remnant of Israel will return.
11 Messiah's kingdom will bring peace to all nations.
12 Isaiah prophesies of Israel's thanksgiving to G-d for His mercy and salvation.
13 Isaiah prophesies the destruction of Babylon.
14 Isaiah prophesies about the return of G-d's people, Israel.
Isaiah describes the doom of Babylon.
Isaiah describes the destruction of Philistia.
15 Isaiah delivers the oracle of destruction against Moab.
16 Isaiah continues his oracle against Moab.
17 Isaiah delivers an oracle concerning the destruction of Damascus.
18 Isaiah describes the homage of the land beyond the rivers of Cush (Ethiopia).
19 Isaiah delivers the oracle of destruction against Egypt.
20 Isaiah prophesies that Assyria will lead Egypt naked and barefoot into captivity.
Egypt's captivity eliminates Israel's hope in Egypt for deliverance.
21 Isaiah delivers the oracle concerning the destruction of the wilderness of the sea (Babylon).
Isaiah delivers the oracle concerning the destruction of Edom.
Isaiah delivers the oracle about the destruction of Arabia.
22 Isaiah records the oracle concerning the assault and destruction of the "vally of vision" (Jerusalem).
23 Isaiah delivers the oracle concern the destruction of Tyre.
24 Isaiah describes how the LORD lays the Land waste and devastates it, scattering its inhabitants.
25 Isaiah exalts and praises G-d, His kingdom, and His favor.
G-d extends His blessings to all peoples.
G-d extends salvation to His people and they rejoice.
26 The song of thanksgiving sun in the land of Judah for the greatness and goodness of G-d.
G-d protects and watches over His people.
G-d shelters His people while He punishes the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity.
27 G-d shelters and guards His vineyard (Israel).
A great trumpet will sound and those who are scattered will come and worship G-d in Jerusalem.
28 The proud crown of the drunkards of Ephraim is denounced.
G-d declares that He is laying in Zion a stone, a tested stone, a costly cornerstone.
He will make justice the measuring line and righteousness the level.
Isaiah delivers the parable of planting, reaping, and threshing.
29 Isaiah prophesies warnings and promises to Jerusalem.
30 G-d declares the folly of reliance upon Egypt.
Condemnation is declared for rejecting G-d's Word but it will not last forever.
G-d will be gracious when His people cry out to Him.
Assyria will be destroyed.
31 Isaiah declares woe to those who rely upon Egypt for help.
G-d will help Israel and not Egypt.
32 The reign of the righteous King is described.
G-d's abundance will cease causing grief and mourning.
G-d's Spirit will be poured out and abundance will return with justice, righteousness, and peace.
33 Isaiah pronounces woe and judgment to Assyria, the destroyer.
G-d alone is exalted and He will consume the ungodly like fire consumes chaff.
The righteous will dwell on the heights, be protected, and be delivered.
34 isaiah pronounces G-d's indignation against all the nations and their armies.
G-d's vengeance will utterly destroy them.
35 Those who fear and obey the LORD will flourish, rejoice, and be glad.
   
  Chapters 36-39 recount events from the reign of Hezekiah
36 Assyria, under Sennacherib, invades Judah.
The emmisary of Sennacherib warns all Jerusalem not to trust in Egypt or in their G-d.
37 Hezekiah humbles himself and asks Isaiah to seek the favor of the LORD.
The LORD sends comfort and deliverance to Hezekiah and Jerusalem.
G-d kills 185,000 Assyrian soldiers in a single night.
38 Hezekiah becomes mortally ill, seeks G-d's favor, and is healed.
Hezekiah writes a song of thanksgiving to the LORD.
39 Hezekiah shows all of his treasure to ambassadors from Babylon.
Isaiah prophesies that all the treasure will be taken away to Babylon in the time of Hezekiah's sons.
   
  Chapters 40-66 contain words of comfort to Judah and Israel
40 Isaiah writes tender words of comfort and consolation to G-d's people.
G-d's greatness and goodness is described.
41 G-d addresses the nations.
G-d addresses Israel.
G-d challenges idols to show what they can do: nothing.
42 G-d describes His Servant, His chosen one, who will bring forth justice to the nations.
A new song of praise for G-d is given that extends to the ends of the earth.
Israel is described as a blind and deaf servant who does not obey their Master.
43 The LORD promises deliverance and protection to Israel.
Israel and the nations are challenged to be G-d's witnesses and declare that the LORD is G-d.
G-d declares that He will redeem Israel from where He has scattered them.
G-d says that Israel has not yet called on Him or honored Him as they should.
44 G-d promises to pour out His Spirit on Israel who will in turn call upon Him.
G-d describes the folly of idolatry.
G-d confirms the word of His servant and the purpose of His messengers.
45 The LORD names Cyrus as His anointed to deliver Israel from bondage in Babylon.
G-d describes His greatness, holiness, and righteousness.
G-d describes the purpose of creation: every knee will bow and every tongue swear allegiance.
46 The gods of Babylon are compared to the G-d of Israel.
G-d declares there is no other G-d and there is none like Him.
47 G-d says that He will take vengeance upon Babylon… not a man will be spared.
48 G-d declares that He will deliver Israel in spite of their obstinance and disobedience.
49 The "Servant of the LORD" was formed to bring Jacob and Israel back to the LORD.
The LORD says that He has inscribed Israel on His palms.
50 The suffering servant is described as a prophet sustained by the LORD.
51 Isaiah delivers G-d's promise to comfort and sustain His people.
52 G-d offers encouragement for Zion.
How lovely are the feet of him who brings good news and announces peace.
Israel will have victory through the suffering of G-d's servant.
53 The suffering servant is described as a tender shoot, despised and forsaken of men.
His sufferings lead to the healing of Israel and the recovery of the lost sheep.
54 The future splendor of Zion is described and G-d is extolled.
55 G-d calls Israel to hearken and return to Him.
When they do, they will go out with joy and be led forth in peace.
56 The LORD encourages Israel to preserve justice and do righteousness.
Those who were once rejected will be consoled.
The watchmen are blind and know nothing. G-d will gather in spite of their failure.
57 Isaiah rebukes Judah for their idolatry and sorcery.
G-d dwells with the contrite and lowly of spirit to revive them.
58 G-d exhorts Isaiah to raise his voice and declare the transgression of Israel and the sin of Judah.
G-d provides examples of good and evil observances of His fasts and Sabbaths.
59 Isaiah confesses the sin and iniquity of the nation.
G-d declares that His covenant with Israel means that His Spirit and His Word will not depart from them or their offspring.
60 Zion is glorified because G-d has risen in their midst and His glory permeates the Land.
61 Zion is encouraged by the coming day of vengeance against their enemies and the day of freedom to those in bondage.
Those who endure to the end will be exalted.
62 Zion's glory is described.
Gentile nations will see Zion's glory and her salvation.
63 Israel's redeemer will travel from Edom, majestic and strong.
G-d will have His vengeance upon Israel's enemies.
Isaiah offers a prayer for G-d's mercy upon Israel.
64 Isaiah continues his prayer for G-d's mercy, help, and restoration.
65 G-d gives His response to Isaiah's prayer condemning the self-righteous but promising salvation to those who serve Him.
66 G-d declares that He has called and no one answered: He spoke but they did not listen.
Israel will be reborn in one day.
All nations will come and bow down before G-d from new moon to new moon and from Sabbath to Sabbath.

 

Torah Portion

עקב (Ekev)

 

 

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Yom Rivi'i, 20 Av, 5779

Wednesday, August 21, 2019

 

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