Names of the Book
|Wrote the book:||Unknown (some have suggested Nathan's son Zabud- 1 Kings 4:5). The book may also include some writings of Nathan and Gad (see 1 Chronicles 29:29).|
|Are the key people:||David, Abigail, Bathsheba, Abner, Nathan|
|Is it written to:||The people of Israel|
|David's successes as conquering king (2 Samuel 1:1-10:19)|
|David's struggles as a husband and father (2 Samuel 11:1-24:25)|
|Was it written:||930 BCE|
|Did the events occur:||c 1050-970 BCE|
|Was it canonized:||c 499-100 BCE|
|(see the Timeline of the Tanakh)|
|Was it written:||unknown location in Israel|
|Did the events occur:||The land of Israel: Hebron, Jerusalem, Gath, Moab, Edom, Rabbah, Mahanaim, Forest of Ephraim, Abel Beth Maacah|
|2 Samuel was written to inform us that:|
|G-d grows His kingdom.|
|G-d desires justice.|
|G-d punishes sin.|
|There is sin even the greatest among men, King David.|
Second Samuel is a historical narrative that begins at the conclusion of First Samuel. Originally, the two were a single tome called "The book of Samuel". Second Samuel records David's reign as king over Israel. During David's reign, Israel's borders grew to extend roughly from Egypt to the Euphrates: almost the full area that G-d had promised to Abraham. Although David has many successes, he sins against G-d by having Uriah killed in battle so he can marry Uriah's wife, Bathsheba. Subsequently both David's kingdom and his own family fall into chaos with his son Absalom leading a violent rebellion against him. Even in the midst of David's sin and failures, he was a man after God's own heart who modeled deep, heartfelt prayer and repentance. Consequently, G-d makes a covenant with David that establishes the eternal rule of David's descendants over Israel.
Scripture- Book Selection
|1||An Amalekite man claims he killed Saul and tells David of Saul's and Jonathan's death.
David has the Amalekite killed for raising his hand against G-d's anointed (Saul).
David mourns and writes a song about the death of Saul and Jonathan.
|2||David is anointed king of Judah.
Abner, the commander of Saul's army, makes Ishbosheth king of Israel.
Abner and David's warriors fight in a contest. David's warriors win.
Abner and David's general, Joab, call a temporary truce.
|3||During a lengthy war between them, David grows stronger and Ishbosheth grows weaker.
David has many sons.
Abner switches his allegiance to David who agrees on the condition that Abner returns Michal to him.
Joab betrays Abner and kills him.
David mourns for Abner.
|4||Two of Ishbosheth's commanders, Baanah and Rechab, kill Ishbosheth and behead him.
They tell David of their betrayal and murder who is displeased and kills them in return.
|5||David is anointed king over all Israel and captures Zion from the Jebusites.
David marries more wives and has more children.
The Philistines attack David but he defeats them.
|6||David brings G-d's ark of the covenant to Jerusalem.
During the transfer, Uzzah touches ark and dies.
David dances before G-d but his wife, Michal, despises his behavior.
|7||Israel lives in peace.
David desires to build a temple for G-d but G-d sends Nathan the prophet to tell him that his son will build the temple.
G-d tells David about His plans for Israel and the covenant He will make with the house of David.
David praises G-d.
|8||David defeats the Philistines, Moab, Zobah, Damascus, and Edom.
David reigns over Israel and administers justice for them.
|9||David shows kindness to Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan.
David restores Saul's lands to Mephibosheth and he eats at David's table.
|10||David sends servants to honor Hanun, the new king of Ammon.
Hanun humiliates the servants and sends them away.
Ammon hires mercenaries to fight against Israel but Israel defeats them.
|11||During the war with Ammon, David lies with Uriah's wife, Bathsheba, who conceives.
David conspires to have Uriah killed in the war and then marries Bathsheba.
David's actions are evil in the sight of G-d.
|12||Nathan reveals David's sin with Bathsheba.
David repents and is forgiven but Bathsheba's child dies.
Bathsheba gives birth to Solomon.
David conquers the Ammonite city of Rabbah.
|13||David's son, Amnon, rapes his half sister, Tamar.
Absalom, Tamar's brother, kills Amnon then flees to Geshur.
David mourns for Absalom.
|14||Joab has a wise woman speak to David about Absalom.
David calls Absalom to Jerusalem and he returns.
David and Absalom reconcile.
|15||Absalom wins the hearts of the people of Israel and plans to take over the kingdom.
David flees Jerusalem and has Hushai spy on Absalom.
|16||Ziba, the servant of Mephibosheth, brings supplies to David.
Shimei, a man from the house of Saul, curses David and casts stones at him.
Ahithophel advises Absalom and Absalom sleeps with David's concubines.
|17||Ahithophel counsels Absalom to pursue David but Hushai counsels against it.
Absalom pursues David and Hushai sends priests to warn David of Absalom's threat.
David flees across the Jordan river to escape Absalom.
|18||David's men fight with Absalom's men and Absalom's men are slaughtered.
David's general kills Absalom even though David requested he be spared.
David mourns for his son Absalom.
|19||David mourns and forgives his enemies which shame's David's men and their victory in battle.
The men of Judah meet David at the Jordan river and Shimei begs forgiveness from David.
The men of Israel argue with the men of Judah because they were not invited to participate in David's return.
|20||A man of Benjamin, Sheba, leads Israel against David.
Joab kills Amasa, Sheba's general, and Joab pursues Sheba.
A woman of the city of Abel consults with Joab.
The Abelites kills Sheba and Joab's men return home.
|21||After Saul's death, there is a famine in Israel for three years because Saul killed some Gibeonites (with whom Israel had made a treaty).
David makes peace with the Gibeonites.
Israel wins battles against the Philistines.
|22||David writes a song after the LORD saves him from Saul and his enemies: the LORD is my rock, my fortress and my deliverer.|
|23||David's last words are recorded.
David describes G-d's everlasting covenant with the house of David.
David's chief warriors are listed and their deeds are briefly recounted.
|24||David takes a census of the people of Israel and Judah: Israel 800,000 men and Judah 500,000 men.
David repents of his sin against G-d and G-d offers him three options as penalty for his sin.
David allows G-d to choose so G-d sends a plague and 70,000 men die.
David buys the threshing floor from a Jebusite, makes a sacrifice to G-d, and the plague stops.