The Last Days of Antiochus Epiphanes
6 King Antiochus was going through the upper provinces when he heard that Elymais in Persia was a city famed for its wealth in silver and gold. 2 Its temple was very rich, containing golden shields, breastplates, and weapons left there by Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian king who first reigned over the Greeks. 3 So he came and tried to take the city and plunder it, but he could not because his plan had become known to the citizens 4 and they withstood him in battle. So he fled and in great disappointment left there to return to Babylon.
5 Then someone came to him in Persia and reported that the armies that had gone into the land of Judea had been routed; 6 that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews;a that the Jews 1 had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils that they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 7 that they had torn down the abomination that he had erected on the altar in Yerushalayim; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beit-Tzur, his town.
8 When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from disappointment, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 9 He lay there for many days, because deep disappointment continually gripped him, and he realized that he was dying. 10 So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep has departed from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 11 I said to myself, 'To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power.' 12 But now I remember the wrong I did in Yerushalayim. I seized all its vessels of silver and gold, and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judea without good reason. 13 I know that it is because of this that these misfortunes have come upon me; here I am, perishing of bitter disappointment in a strange land."
14 Then he called for Philip, one of his friends, and made him ruler over all his kingdom. 15 He gave him the crown and his robe and the signet, so that he might guide his son Antiochus and bring him up to be king. 16 Thus King Antiochus died there in the one hundred forty-ninth year. 2 17 When Lysias learned that the king was dead, he set up Antiochus the king's 3 son to reign. Lysiase had brought him up from boyhood; he named him Eupator.
Renewed Attacks from Syria
Meanwhile the garrison in the citadel kept hemming Israel in around the sanctuary. They were trying in every way to harm them and strengthen the goyim. 19 Yehudah therefore resolved to destroy them, and assembled all the people to besiege them. 20 They gathered together and besieged the citadel 4 in the one hundred fiftieth year; 5 and he built siege towers and other engines of war. 21 But some of the garrison escaped from the siege and some of the ungodly Israelites joined them. 22 They went to the king and said, "How long will you fail to do justice and to avenge our kindred? 23 We were happy to serve your father, to live by what he said, and to follow his commands. 24 For this reason the sons of our people besieged the citadel 6 and became hostile to us; moreover, they have put to death as many of us as they have caught, and they have seized our inheritances. 25 It is not against us alone that they have stretched out their hands; they have also attacked all the lands on their borders. 26 And see, today they have encamped against the citadel in Yerushalayim to take it; they have fortified both the sanctuary and Beit-Tzur; 27 unless you quickly prevent them, they will do still greater things, and you will not be able to stop them."
28 The king was enraged when he heard this. He assembled all his friends, the commanders of his forces and those in authority. 7 29 Mercenary forces also came to him from other kingdoms and from islands of the seas. 30 The number of his forces was one hundred thousand foot soldiers, twenty thousand horsemen, and thirty-two elephants accustomed to war. 31 They came through Idumea and encamped against Beit-Tzur, and for many days they fought and built engines of war; but the Jews 8 sallied out and burned these with fire, and fought courageously.
The Battle at Beth-zechariah
32 Then Yehudah marched away from the citadel and encamped at Beit-Zechariah, opposite the camp of the king. 33 Early in the morning the king set out and took his army by a forced march along the road to Beit-Zechariah, and his troops made ready for battle and sounded their trumpets. 34 They offered the elephants the juice of grapes and mulberries, to arouse them for battle. 35 They distributed the animals among the phalanxes; with each elephant they stationed a thousand men armed with coats of mail, and with brass helmets on their heads; and five hundred picked horsemen were assigned to each beast. 36 These took their position beforehand wherever the animal was; wherever it went, they went with it, and they never left it. 37 On the elephants 9 were wooden towers, strong and covered; they were fastened on each animal by special harness, and on each were four 10 armed men who fought from there, and also its Indian driver. 38 The rest of the cavalry were stationed on either side, on the two flanks of the army, to harass the enemy while being themselves protected by the phalanxes. 39 When the sun shone on the shields of gold and brass, the hills were ablaze with them and gleamed like flaming torches.
40 Now a part of the king's army was spread out on the high hills, and some troops were on the plain, and they advanced steadily and in good order. 41 All who heard the noise made by their multitude, by the marching of the multitude and the clanking of their arms, trembled, for the army was very large and strong. 42 But Yehudah and his army advanced to the battle, and six hundred of the king's army fell. 43 Now Eleazar, called Avaran, saw that one of the animals was equipped with royal armor. It was taller than all the others, and he supposed that the king was on it. 44 So he gave his life to save his people and to win for himself an everlasting name. 45 He courageously ran into the midst of the phalanx to reach it; he killed men right and left, and they parted before him on both sides. 46 He got under the elephant, stabbed it from beneath, and killed it; but it fell to the ground upon him and he died. 47 When the Jews 11 saw the royal might and the fierce attack of the forces, they turned away in flight.
The Siege of the Temple
48 The soldiers of the king's army went up to Yerushalayim against them, and the king encamped in Judea and at Mount Zion. 49 He made peace with the people of Beit-Tzur, and they evacuated the town because they had no provisions there to withstand a siege, since it was a sabbatical year for the land. 50 So the king took Beit-Tzur and stationed a guard there to hold it. 51 Then he encamped before the sanctuary for many days. He set up siege towers, engines of war to throw fire and stones, machines to shoot arrows, and catapults. 52 The Jews 12 also made engines of war to match theirs, and fought for many days. 53 But they had no food in storage, 13 because it was the seventh year; those who had found safety in Judea from the goyim had consumed the last of the stores. 54 Only a few men were left in the sanctuary; the rest scattered to their own homes, for the famine proved too much for them.
Syria Offers Terms
55 Then Lysias heard that Philip, whom King Antiochus while still living had appointed to bring up his son Antiochus to be king, 56 had returned from Persia and Media with the forces that had gone with the king, and that he was trying to seize control of the government. 57 So he quickly gave orders to withdraw, and said to the king, to the commanders of the forces, and to the troops, "Daily we grow weaker, our food supply is scant, the place against which we are fighting is strong, and the affairs of the kingdom press urgently on us. 58 Now then let us come to terms with these people, and make peace with them and with all their nation. 59 Let us agree to let them live by their Torah as they did before; for it was on account of their Torah that we abolished that they became angry and did all these things."
60 The speech pleased the king and the commanders, and he sent to the Jews 14 an offer of peace, and they accepted it. 61 So the king and the commanders gave them their oath. On these conditions the Jews 15 evacuated the stronghold. 62 But when the king entered Mount Zion and saw what a strong fortress the place was, he broke the oath he had sworn and gave orders to tear down the wall all around. 63 Then he set off in haste and returned to Antioch. He found Philip in control of the city, but he fought against him, and took the city by force.
Footnotes1. Greek them [back]
2. 163 B.C.E. [back]
3. Greek his [back]
4. Greek it [back]
5. 162 B.C.E. [back]
6. The meaning of the Greek is uncertain [back]
7. Greek: those over the reigns [back]
8. Greek they [back]
9. Greek them [back]
10. Some texts read thirty; others thirty-two [back]
11. Greek they [back]
12. Greek they [back]
13. Other authorities read in the sanctuary [back]
14. Greek them [back]
15. Greek they [back]