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There are other "offerings" that are mentioned in Scripture that are not qorbanot.

 

Wave Offering

The Hebrew word תנוּפה (tenuphah, Strong's #8573) means "swinging, waving, or brandishing"1 and is sometimes translated as a "wave offering". This word is used in 28 verses of the Tanakh. Rather than describing a type of offering it describes what is done with an offering: it is waved before the LORD.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this is described is during the consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests (Exodus chapter 29). During this ceremony a series of objects are placed "in the hands of Aaron and in the hands of his sons" (Exodus 29:24) and they are waved [v'hanepheta] as a "wave offering" [tenuphah] (literally: a waving, or that which is waved).

These items are then taken from their hands and offered up in smoke [v'heqetareta] on the altar. This is not an olah but it is burned up on the altar.

Last use

During Isaiah's description of the return of the Messiah, we see the last use of word tenuphah in the Tanakh.

You will have songs as in the night when you keep the festival, And gladness of heart as when one marches to the sound of the flute, To go to the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel. And the LORD will cause His voice of authority to be heard, And the descending of His arm to be seen in fierce anger, And in the flame of a consuming fire In cloudburst, downpour and hailstones. For at the voice of the LORD Assyria will be terrified, When He strikes with the rod. And every blow of the rod of punishment, Which the LORD will lay on him, Will be with the music of tambourines and lyres; And in battles, brandishing [tenuphah- waving] weapons, He will fight them. For Topheth has long been ready, Indeed, it has been prepared for the king. He has made it deep and large, A pyre of fire with plenty of wood; The breath of the LORD, like a torrent of brimstone, sets it afire. (Isaiah 30:29-33)

 

Instead of an offering that is waved, this verse shows us that G-d will be waving weapons in battle.

 

Heave Offering

The Hebrew word תרוּמה (terumah, Strong's #8641) means a contribution2 and comes from a root word that means "to raise up"3. It is sometimes translated as a "heave offering". This word is used in 63 verses of the Tanakh.4 Like the "wave offering," this does not describe a type of offering but instead describes what is done with something: it is "raised up" before G-d.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this word is used is when G-d invites the children of Israel to bring a contribution of gold, silver, bronze, blue, purpose, and scarlet material, fine linen, goat hair, rams skins dyed red, porpoise skins, acacia wood, etc for the construction of the tabernacle. (Exodus 25:2-7)

 

Last Use

The last time this word is used in the Tanakh is in Malachi chapter 3:

Will a man rob God? Yet you are robbing Me! But you say, 'How have we robbed You?' In tithes and offerings [terumah]. (Malachi 3:8)

 

Some of these "contributions" are required (e.g. the half-shekel tax of the census- Exodus 30:13-14) and some of them are voluntary (e.g. the objects brought for the construction of the tabernacle- Exodus 35:5).

In the sense that fund-raisers "raise" money, a terumah is a contribution that is raised up for the LORD. In some instances, it is literally lifted up in G-d's presence (Leviticus 10:15).

 

Fire Offering

The Hebrew word אשּׁה (isheh, Strong's #801) is often translates as "offering by fire"5 and comes from a root word that simply means "fire"6. This word is used 68 times in 64 verses of the Tanakh.7 Like the "wave offering," this does not describe a type of offering but instead describes what is done with something: it is "burned in the fire" before G-d.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this word is used is during the ordination of Aaron and his sons to the priesthood:

You shall offer up in smoke the whole ram on the altar; it is a burnt offering to the LORD: it is a soothing aroma, an offering by fire to the LORD. (Exodus 29:18)

 

Last Use

The last time this word is used in the Tanakh is in 1 Samuel 2 when "a man of G-d" comes to Eli and admonishes him:

Did I not choose them from all the tribes of Israel to be My priests, to go up to My altar, to burn incense, to carry an ephod before Me; and did I not give to the house of your father all the fire offerings of the sons of Israel? (1 Samuel 2:28)

 

Some of the qorbanot are described as ishei (fire offerings).

 

Drink Offering

The Hebrew word נסך (nesek, Strong's #5262) is translated in the NASB as "drink offering"8 and in the KJV as "libation" or "drink offering"9. This word comes from a verb that means "to pour out".10 This word is used 60 times in 58 verses of the Tanakh.11 This word is used to describe the wine that is sometimes "poured out" along with the qorbanot. This is not a separate type of offering but is usually an "accessory" to other types of offerings.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where we find this word is when G-d changes Jacob's name to Israel:

Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. (Genesis 35:14)

 

Last Use

The last use of this word is made by the prophet Joel in a rather enigmatic verse:

"Yet even now," declares the LORD, "Return to Me with all your heart, And with fasting, weeping and mourning; And rend your heart and not your garments." Now return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and compassionate, Slow to anger, abounding in lovingkindness And relenting of evil. Who knows whether He will not turn and relent And leave a blessing behind Him, Even a grain offering [minchah] and a drink offering For the LORD your God? (Joel 2:12-14)

 

G-d will leave a minchah and a nesek for Himself?

 

Footnotes

1. NASEC [back]
2. NASEC [back]
3. NASEC [back]
4. NASEC [back]
5. NASEC [back]
6. NASEC [back]
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8. NASEC [back]
9. Strongs [back]
10. BDB [back]
11. NASEC [back]

Torah Portion

חקת (Chukat)

 

 

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Yom Chamishi, 8 Tammuz, 5778

Thursday, June 21, 2018

 

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