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A Bound SheepScripture describes the creation of the entire universe in one chapter (Genesis chapter 1) and then takes most of three whole books (Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) to describe the construction of the tabernacle and the sacrifices that were to be performed there.

Should we disregard a significant portion of G-d's Word because Messiah fulfilled the sacrifices or because the Temple no longer stands? Are the sacrifices irrelevant in the daily lives of modern believers?

When we are encouraged by leaders in our congregations to do something or to believe something in regards to Scripture, we should always be like the Bereans and test everything against Scripture itself (Acts 17:11)... the whole of Scripture (2 Timothy 3:16-17). If a person feels "led by the spirit" to speak, behave, or believe a certain way, they should test that spirit (1 John 4:1) and see whether what that spirit is telling them to do is in agreement or disagreement with Scripture.

Let's walk together through Scripture and see what it says about sacrifices. As we take this walk, may we say, believe, and do what is right, be merciful in our speech and actions, and walk humbly with the Lord (Micah 6:8).

Scriptural quotations are from the New American Standard Bible unless otherwise noted. Bolded text or other emphases in the Scriptural references are the author's.

What Does Sacrifice Mean?

English

sac·ri·fice

1. giving up of something valued: a giving up of something valuable or important for somebody or something else considered to be of more value or importance
2. something valued and given up: something valuable or important given up as a sacrifice
3. loss in giving up something valued: a loss incurred by giving away or selling something below its value
4. religion offering to god: an offering to honor or appease a god, especially of a ritually slaughtered animal or person
5. religion something or somebody offered to god:something or somebody offered to honor or appease a god

Encarta® World English Dictionary [North American Edition] © & (P) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Developed for Microsoft by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

 

"An offering to... appease a god"?

ap·pease

pacify: to say or do something in order to make somebody less angry or aggressive, especially by giving in to demands that have been made

Encarta® World English Dictionary [North American Edition] © & (P) 2009 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Developed for Microsoft by Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.

 

Is this what the sacrifices are all about?

G-d is angry with our sin and we have to bring Him something to make Him less angry?

While this might be a common idea among unbelievers, we should never think such a thing of G-d!

 

Why the Sacrifices?

G-d stated that He desired to dwell among His people Israel (Exodus 25:8) but G-d is holy (Hebrew: qadosh).

In fact, G-d is holy, holy, holy! (Isaiah 6:3)

In order for the absolutely Holy G-d to dwell among His people, He required a holy place [miqdash] which was the tabernacle [mishkan]. Once the glory of G-d was in the tabernacle nobody (not even Moses!) could get in (Exodus 40:34-35). This is because humans are not holy as G-d is holy.

The Israelites had to be prepared in a special way to approach their Holy G-d and the sacrifices provided the way for them to do so. For more details see our article Why the Sacrifices.

For now, let's continue to see what Scripture says about the Sacrifices. Let's start with the Hebrew words of the Tanakh...

 

Hebrew

There are several words translated from Hebrew into English as "offering" or "sacrifice".

 

Qorban

The Hebrew word קרבּן (qorban- Strong's #7133) is a masculine noun1 is usually translated as "offering" or "sacrifice"2 but it literally means "the thing of approach". Qorban comes from a Hebrew root verb (qarab) that means "to approach" or "to come near".3 It's used 80 times in 76 verses. The plural form of qorban is qorbanot.

In order to qarab [approach] G-d we need a qorban [a "thing of approach"].

This word is first used in Leviticus chapter 1 to describe the offerings associated with the tabernacle and the Levitical service.

"Speak to the sons of Israel and say to them, 'When any man of you brings an offering to the LORD, you shall bring your offering of animals from the herd or the flock. (Leviticus 1:2)

 

When any person brings a "thing of approach" to the LORD they should bring that "thing of approach" from animals of the herd or the flock.

 

Qorban is last used by the prophet Ezekiel to describe the Temple during the millennial reign of Messiah.

The double hooks, one handbreadth in length, were installed in the house all around; and on the tables was the flesh of the offering. (Ezekiel 40:43)

 

During the Messiah's millennial reign the Temple will have the qorban of the herd and flock in it once again.

Qorban means the "thing of approach". Its purpose is to bring the person close to G-d.

There are different types of qorbanot described in Scripture and each has a different purpose and process by which it is brought.

 

Olah

The Hebrew word עלה (olah- Strong's #5930) is a feminine noun4 translated as "burnt offering"5. It comes from a root word (alah) that means "to go up"6. When an olah is offered it goes up (alah) in smoke and is wholly consumed. Olah is found in 260 verses of the Tanakh.

The first time olah is used is in the story of Noah after the Flood subsides and he leaves the ark.

Then Noah built an altar to the LORD, and took of every clean animal and of every clean bird and offered burnt offerings on the altar. (Genesis 8:20)

 

Noah took seven pairs of clean birds and animals onto the ark (Genesis 7:2). After the Flood, he sacrificed one of every clean animal and every clean bird and offered them up as an olah: a burnt offering that was completely consumed.

 

The last time olah is found in Scripture is in the writings of the prophet Micah.

My people, remember now What Balak king of Moab counseled And what Balaam son of Beor answered him, And from Shittim to Gilgal, So that you might know the righteous acts of the LORD. With what shall I come to the LORD And bow myself before the God on high? Shall I come to Him with burnt offerings, With yearling calves? Does the LORD take delight in thousands of rams, In ten thousand rivers of oil? Shall I present my firstborn for my rebellious acts, The fruit of my body for the sin of my soul? He has told you, O man, what is good; And what does the LORD require of you But to do justice, to love kindness, And to walk humbly with your God? (Micah 6:5-8)

 

Micah points out that G-d desires for His people to have the proper attitude rather than bring burnt offerings with the wrong attitude. It is not the burnt offering that makes a person acceptable before G-d.

Olah simply means "that which goes up": an offering that is completely consumed and which "goes up" in smoke.

 

Minchah

The Hebrew word מנחה (minchah- Strong's #4503) is a feminine noun7 translated as "offering" or "sacrifice" but literally means "that which is bestowed" or "that which is apportioned": a gift or a present.8 It is found in 193 verses of the Tanakh. This is the first word translated in Scripture as "offering".

It is found in the story of Cain and Abel in Genesis chapter 4.

So it came about in the course of time that Cain brought an offering to the LORD of the fruit of the ground. Abel, on his part also brought of the firstlings of his flock and of their fat portions. And the LORD had regard for Abel and for his offering; but for Cain and for his offering He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his countenance fell. (Genesis 4:3-5)

 

The last time this word is used is in Malachi chapter 3:

"He will sit as a smelter and purifier of silver, and He will purify the sons of Levi and refine them like gold and silver, so that they may present to the LORD offerings in righteousness. Then the offering of Judah and Jerusalem will be pleasing to the LORD as in the days of old and as in former years." (Malachi 3:3-4)

 

In some future time, G-d will purify the Levites so that they may present Him with gifts in a righteous manner.

Minchah means "a gift" or "a present".

 

Zebach

The Hebrew word זבח (zebach- Strong's #2077) is a masculine noun9 often translated as "sacrifice" but it literally means "slaughter".10 This word comes from a Hebrew root verb (zabach) which means "to slaughter".11 Animals that are "sacrificed" are "slaughtered" but so are animals that are not intended for sacrifice and are intended simply for food. This word is found 157 times in 148 verses of the Tanakh.

This word is first used in Genesis 31 in the story of Jacob and Laban.

Then Jacob offered [zabach] a sacrifice [zebach] on the mountain, and called his kinsmen to the meal; and they ate the meal and spent the night on the mountain. (Genesis 31:54)

 

This was not a sacrifice to G-d. It was the slaughter of an animal for a meal to consummate an agreement between Jacob and Laban.

 

Zebach is last used in Zephaniah chapter 1.

Be silent before the Lord GOD! For the day of the LORD is near, For the LORD has prepared a sacrifice, He has consecrated His guests. Then it will come about on the day of the LORD'S sacrifice That I will punish the princes, the king's sons And all who clothe themselves with foreign garments. (Zephaniah 1:7-8)

 

This passage speaks of G-d's coming judgment against the nation of Judah. The picture is one of G-d having prepared a meal for His guests to eat while they watch Him destroy "those who have turned back from following the LORD, And those who have not sought the LORD or inquired of Him" (verse 6).

In the context of the Levitical sacrifices (throughout Leviticus and Numbers), zebach is used almost exclusively in reference to the peace offering (discussed below). The zebach/slaughtered animal was brought as food to eat as part of the peace offering. Here is an example of how it is used in that sense:

'Now if his offering is a sacrifice of peace offerings, if he is going to offer out of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without defect before the LORD. He shall lay his hand on the head of his offering and slay it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, and Aaron's sons the priests shall sprinkle the blood around on the altar.' (Leviticus 3:1-2)

 

The Hebrew phrase in this verse זבח שׁלמיהם (zebach sh'lamim) is translated into English as "sacrifice of peace offerings".

Zebach simply means "a slaughtered animal" for whatever purpose.

 

Chata'at

The Hebrew word חטאת (chata'at- Strong's #2403) is a feminine noun12 translated as "sin" or "sin offering".13 Chata'at comes from the root word chatah which means "to sin" but literally means "to miss the mark" (as in archery). This does not imply that a person hit the target but was off the bullseye by just a bit. It means to miss by falling short of the target altogether. This word is used in 269 verses of the Tanakh.

Chata'at is first found in the story of Cain and Abel.

If you do well, will not your countenance be lifted up? And if you do not do well, sin is crouching at the door; and its desire is for you, but you must master it." (Genesis 4:7)

 

The first time chata'at is used in the sense of "sin offering" is in Exodus during the consecration of Aaron and his sons into the priesthood:

"But the flesh of the bull and its hide and its refuse, you shall burn with fire outside the camp; it is a sin offering. (Exodus 29:14)

 

The bull that is slaughtered is given as a sin offering.

The last time chata'at is used in the sense of "sin offering" is written by the prophet Ezekiel.

He said to me, "This is the place where the priests shall boil the guilt offering and the sin offering and where they shall bake the grain offering, in order that they may not bring them out into the outer court to transmit holiness to the people." (Ezekiel 26:20)

 

Here G-d is describing the future Temple to Ezekiel. He is describing special rooms where the priests will boil the guilt offering and the sin offering to avoid accidentally sanctifying the people.

This passage also mentions guilt offerings.

 

Asham

The Hebrew word translated as "guilt offering" is אשׁם (asham- Strong's #817). It is a masculine noun14 that is used in 41 verses of the Tanakh. Like chata'at can mean both "sin" and the "sin offering", asham can mean both "guilt" and "guilt offering".

The first use of asham is found in Genesis regarding the story of Isaac and Abimelech. Isaac asks Rebekah to tell everyone that she is his sister. Abimelech sees Isaac caressing his wife and confronts him:

Abimelech said, "What is this you have done to us? One of the people might easily have lain with your wife, and you would have brought guilt upon us." (Genesis 26:10)

 

The first use of asham as a "guilt offering" is found in the book of Leviticus.

He shall also bring his guilt offering to the LORD for his sin which he has committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat as a sin offering. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin. (Leviticus 5:6)

 

For more details regarding "atonement" see What Scripture Says About Atonement.

 

The last time asham is used in the sense of "guilt offering" is written by the prophet Ezekiel... the same verse as the last instance of "sin offering".

He said to me, "This is the place where the priests shall boil the guilt offering and the sin offering and where they shall bake the grain offering, in order that they may not bring them out into the outer court to transmit holiness to the people." (Ezekiel 26:20)

 

A guilt offering is an offering to atone for sins of stealing things from the altar, for when you are not sure whether you have committed a sin or what sin you have committed, or for breach of trust.15

 

Although there is a striking similarity between the Hebrew word asham and the English word "ashame" there do not appear to be any etymological connections between the two words.

 

Tamid

The Hebrew word תמיד (tamid- Strong's #8548) is a masculine noun16 translated as "continual" or "regular"17 but literally means "that which continues" or "that which stretches".18 It is also used in reference to the "continual offerings" or the "regular sacrifice" (e.g. Daniel 8, 11, and 12). Tamid is used 109 times in 102 verses of the Tanakh. It is sometimes translated into English as an adverb: e.g. "continually", "always", at "all times".

Tamid is first used to describe the "bread of the Presence".

"You shall set the bread of the Presence on the table before Me at all times." (Exodus 25:30)

 

The table of show-bread was to have the bread upon it at all times.

 

The last time tamid is used in Scripture is by the prophet Habakkuk.

Will they therefore empty their net And continually slay nations without sparing? (Habakkuk 1:17)

 

The last time it is used in reference to an offering, however, is found in the writings of the prophet Daniel:

"From the time that the regular sacrifice is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up, there will be 1,290 days. (Daniel 12:11)

 

Daniel marks a period of time beginning when the tamid (the continual offering in the Temple) is abolished and the abomination of desolation is set up.

 

Tamid simply means continual.

 

Seasoned With Salt

In describing the qorbanot, Scripture tells us that every qorban should be offered with salt:

Every grain offering of yours, moreover, you shall season with salt, so that the salt of the covenant of your God shall not be lacking from your grain offering; with all your offerings [qorbanot] you shall offer salt. (Leviticus 2:13)

 

After describing the qorbanot and the laws for each of them, Leviticus chapter 7 concludes with this:

This is the law of the burnt offering, the grain offering and the sin offering and the guilt offering and the ordination offering and the sacrifice of peace offerings, which the LORD commanded Moses at Mount Sinai in the day that He commanded the sons of Israel to present their offerings to the LORD in the wilderness of Sinai. (Leviticus 7:37-38)

 

Let's examine each of these qorbanot separately and in more detail... starting with the olah.

 


The עלה (olah- burnt offering) is the first of the qorbanot mentioned in Leviticus chapter 1.

If his offering [qorban] is a burnt offering [olah] from the herd, he shall offer it, a male without defect; he shall offer [qarab] it at the doorway of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD. (Leviticus 1:3)

 

The KJV translates olah as "a burnt sacrifice".

The details of the olah that are described in Leviticus chapter 1 are listed in the chart below.

Olah
Which
Animals?
Without
Defect?
Slain By
Whom?
Slain Where? Soothing
Aroma?
Entrails?
From the herd-
oxen & cattle (Lev 1:3)
Yes-
(Lev 1:3)
Offerer-
(Lev 1:4-5)
Before the tent of meeting- (west of the altar- Lev 1:3) Yes-
(Lev 1:9)
Washed and burned up-
(Lev 1:9)
From the flock-
sheep & goats (Lev 1:10)
Yes-
(Lev 1:10)
Offerer-
(Lev 1:11)
North of the altar-
(Lev 1:11)
Yes-
(Lev 1:13)
Washed and burned up-
(Lev 1:13)
From the birds-
pigeons & doves (Lev 1:14)
No Aaronic priest-
(Lev 1:15)
North of the altar-
(Lev 1:15-16)
Yes-
(Lev 1:17)
Discarded east of the altar w/ feathers- (Lev 1:17)

 

In all of these cases, the Aaronic priest offers up the blood of the sacrifice and sprinkles it around the altar (Leviticus 1:5, 11, 15) and arranges the pieces of the animal on the altar (Leviticus 1:8, 12).

There is one noted variation in the description of the olah: if the olah is from the herd then the skin is removed before the flesh of the animal is burned up (Leviticus 1:6).

 

A voluntary offering

Generally speaking, the olah is a voluntary offering that is not compulsory. As noted above the first olah described in Scripture is the result of the voluntary outpouring of thanks towards G-d by Noah.

 

Law for the Olah

The "law for the olah" is found in Leviticus chapter 6 and includes:

  • The olah shall remain on the hearth on the altar all night until the morning. (Lev 6:9)
  • The fire on the altar is to be kept burning on it. (Lev 6:9)
  • The priest is to:
    • put on his linen robe and undergarments,
    • take up the ashes of the olah and place them beside the altar,
    • take off his (linen) garments and put on other garments,
    • and carry the ashes outside the camp to a clean place. (Lev 6:10-11)
  • The priest is to:
    • put wood on the altar every morning
    • lay out the olah on it
    • offer up in smoke the fat portions of the peace offerings on it. (Lev 6:12)
  • Fire shall be kept burning continually on the altar; it is not to go out. (Lev 6:13)

 

Additional instruction for the olah is found in Leviticus 7 and Leviticus 17

  • The priest who presents any man's olah, that priest shall have for himself the skin of the olah which he has presented. (Lev 7:8)
  • Any person from the house of Israel or from the aliens who sojourn among them who offers a burnt offering and does not bring it to the doorway of the tent of meeting to offer it to the LORD shall be cut off from his people. (Lev17:8)

 


 

The מנחה (minchah- grain offering) offering is the second of the qorbanot and is described in Leviticus chapter 2.

Now when anyone presents a grain offering [minchah] as an offering [qorban] to the LORD, his offering shall be of fine flour, and he shall pour oil on it and put frankincense on it. (Leviticus 2:1)

 

The KJV translates minchah as a "meat offering". There is no meat involved, however, in a minchah offering. Only grain is used in this qorban.

The details of the minchah qorban that are described in Leviticus chapter 2 are listed below.

Minchah
WHEAT IN MALE HANDS - © Kadir Barcin | iStockPhoto
  • Fine flour with oil and frankincense (Lev 2:1)
  • Baked grain-
    • unleavened cakes mixed with oil (Lev 2:4)
    • Unleavened wafers spread with oil (Lev 2:4)
  • Griddle-cooked grain-
    • fine flour, unleavened, mixed with oil (Lev 2:5)
    • broken into bits with oil poured on it (Lev 2:6)
  • Pan-cooked grain-
    • fine flour with oil (Lev 2:7)
  • First fruits of grain-
    • fresh heads of grain roasted in the fire, grits of new growth (Lev 2:14)
  • Must not be made with leaven (Lev 2:11)
  • Must be seasoned with salt (Lev 2:13)

 

 

The minchah is presented to the priest and brought before the bronze altar (Leviticus 2:8).

The priest takes a memorial portion (Heb: azkarah- a reminder) and offers it up in smoke on the altar. It is a soothing aroma to the LORD (Leviticus 2:9)

The remaining part of the grain offering belongs to Aaron and his sons and is considered to be holy (Leviticus 2:10).

 

No Leaven or Honey

Leviticus 2:11 tells us that the minchah should not include leaven or honey. It appears that leaven or honey may be brought as a "first fruit offering" [Heb: reishit] but not as for minchah (Leviticus 2:12).

 

First Fruits

Leviticus 2:14-16 describes the grain offering [minchah] of "early ripened things" [Heb: bikurim]. These should be of fresh heads of grain roasted in a fire, "grits" (kernels) of new growth. It should have oil and incense on it. The memorial portion of it is offered up in smoke before the LORD.

 

A voluntary offering

The minchah is a voluntary offering that is not compulsory. As noted above the first minchah offering described in Scripture is brought by Cain and Abel.

So it came about in the course of time that Cain brought an offering [minchah] to the LORD of the fruit of the ground [m'peri ha-adamah]. Abel, on his part also brought of the firstlings of his flock [m'bekorot tzonu] and of their fat portions. And the LORD had regard for Abel and for his offering [minchah]; but for Cain and for his offering [minchah] He had no regard. So Cain became very angry and his countenance fell. (Genesis 4:3-5)

 

Cain brought the "fruit of the ground": grain. (Genesis 4:3)

Abel brought the "firstlings of the flock": sheep or goats. (Genesis 4:4)

Both of these are described as minchah but the minchah that is commanded in the Torah is only supposed to be a grain offering.

Why are both of these described as minchah?

 

The Hebrew word minchah literally means "a gift or tribute"19. Cain and Abel brought gifts before G-d.

It is only in the commandments of Leviticus does G-d specify that the minchah should be a gift of grain.

 

Commentary:

Why was Cain's gift rejected while Abel's was accepted?

Abel acted by faith:

By faith Abel offered to God a better sacrifice than Cain, through which he obtained the testimony that he was righteous, God testifying about his gifts, and through faith, though he is dead, he still speaks. (Hebrews 11:4)

 

Abel's offering (his "deeds", his "works") were coupled with the blood of the lamb and provided the perfect picture of how it is only the Blood of the Lamb that makes our deeds/works acceptable to G-d.

 

Law for Minchah

The "law for minchah" is found in Leviticus chapter 6 and includes:

  • The sons of Aaron shall present the minchah before the LORD in front of the altar. (Lev 6:14)
  • One of them shall lift up a handful of the fine flour with its oil and all the incense that is on the grain offering and offer it up in smoke, a soothing aroma as a memorial [Heb: azkarah] to the LORD. (Lev 6:15)
  • What is left of the minchah Aaron and his sons are to eat as unleavened cakes [Heb: matzah] which are to be eaten in the enclosure of the tent of meeting. (Lev 6:16)
  • It shall not be baked with leaven. (Lev 6:17)
  • G-d has given the priests' portion of the minchah to them as their share of G-d's fire offerings. (Lev 6:17)
  • The priests' portion is most holy [Heb: qodesh qodeshim] like the sin offering and the guilt offering. (Lev 6:17)
  • Every male among the sons of Aaron may eat it. (Lev 6:18)
  • The minchah is a permanent ordinance through the generations of Israel from among the offerings by fire to the LORD. (Lev 6:18)
  • Whoever touches these offerings will become consecrated (made holy) [Heb: qadash] (Lev 6:18)

 

Additional instructions for the minchah are found in Leviticus 7:

  • Every minchah that is baked in the oven, prepared in a pan or on a griddle shall belong to the priest who presents it. (Lev 7:9)
  • Every minchah mixed with oil or dry shall belong to all the sons of Aaron, to all alike. (Lev 7:10)

 

 


The זבח שׁלם (zebach sh'lamim- peace offering) is the third qorbanot described in Scripture and is found in Leviticus chapter 3.

Now if his offering is a sacrifice [zebach] of peace offerings [sh'lamim], if he is going to offer out of the herd, whether male or female, he shall offer it without defect before the LORD. (Leviticus 3:1)

 

The details of the sh'lamim that are described in Leviticus chapter 3 are listed in the chart below.

Sh'lamim
What is
Offered?
Without
Defect?
Slain By
Whom?
Slain Where? Soothing
Aroma?
Entrails?
Male or female from the herd- (Lev 3:1) Yes-
(Lev 3:1)
Offerer-
(Lev 3:2)
Before the tent of meeting-
(west of the altar- Lev 3:2)
Yes-
(Lev 3:5)
The fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails, two kidneys, and the liver are burned up as an olah-
(Lev 3:3-5)
Male or female lamb-
(Lev 3:6-7)
Yes-
(Lev 3:6)
Offerer-
(Lev 3:8)
Before the LORD-
(west of the altar- Lev 3:7)
No The entire fat tail, the fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails, two kidneys, and the liver are burned up as an olah-
(Lev 3:9-11)
Male or female goat-
(Lev 3:6, 12)
Yes-
(Lev 3:6)
Offerer-
(Lev 3:13)
Before the tent of meeting-
(west of the altar- Lev 3:13)
Yes-
(Lev 3:16)
The fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails, two kidneys, and the liver are burned up as an olah-
(Lev 3:14-16)

 

In all of these cases, the Aaronic priest offers up the blood of the sacrifice and sprinkles it around the altar (Leviticus 3:2, 8, 13). The fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails and the two kidneys with the fat that is on them, which is on the loins, and the lobe of the liver is removed with the kidneys and burned up as an olah before the LORD.

There are four items of particular interest regarding the sh'lamim:

  1. For the lamb offering the "fat tail" [alyah] is included with the entrails as an olah.
  2. The lamb offering is not described as a "soothing aroma" like the other types of animals.
  3. The lamb offering is described as "food" [Hebrew: lechem] to the LORD in Leviticus 3:11.
  4. In describing the goat offering Scripture includes the observation "all the fat [chelev] is the LORD's". This word implies "the choicest parts" and tells us that "G-d gets the best parts" of the sh'lamim.

 

The chapter concludes with the statement

It is a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings: you shall not eat any fat or any blood. (Leviticus 3:17)

 

In practice, it is impossible to remove all of the fat that may be marbled into a piece of meat. The practical application of this commandment is that the choice parts (the fat and membranes that cover the liver and kidneys) are not eaten and are offered up as an olah before the Lord.

 

Law for Zebach Sh'lamim

The "law for zebach sh'lamim" is found in Leviticus chapter 7 and includes:

Instructions for the bread:

  • If the person offers the sh'lamim by way of thanksgiving [al todah] then along with the sh'lamim he shall offer unleavened cakes [matzah challah] mixed with oil and unleavened wafers [matzah] spread with oil, and cakes [challah] of fine flour mixed with oil. (Lev 7:12)
  • With the sh'lamim the offerer shall bring near [qarab] his offering [qorban] with "cakes of leavened bread" [challah lechem chametz]. (Lev 7:13)
  • The offerer shall bring one of each of these (unleavened cakes, unleavened wafers, cakes of fine flour, and cakes of leavened bread) as a contribution [terumah] to the LORD which shall belong to the priest who sprinkles the blood of the sh'lamim. (Lev 7:14)

 

Instructions for the flesh:

  • The flesh of the sacrifice of his thanksgiving peace offering [todah zebach sh'lamiv] shall be eaten on the day it is offered; none of it shall be left over until morning. (Lev 7:15)
  • But if the qorban is not a sh'lamim but is related to a vow (NASB: votive) [neder] or is spontaneous (NASB: freewill) [nedahbah] then it shall be eaten on the day it is offered and on the next day what is left of it may be eaten. (Lev 7:16 and Lev 19:6)
    • Whatever is left over from the flesh of the qorban on the third day shall be burned with fire. (Lev 7:17 and Lev 19:6)
    • If any of the flesh of the zebach sh'lamim is eaten on the third day, he who offers it will not be accepted and it will not be counted to his benefit. It is an offensive thing [Heb: pigul- foul thing, refuse] and the person who eats of it will bear his own iniquity [Heb: avon] (Lev 7:18) and cut off from his people. (Lev 19:8)
  • The flesh touches anything unclean shall not be eaten but shall be burned with fire. (Lev 7:19)
  • Everyone who is clean [Heb: tahor] may eat of the flesh of the sh'lamim. (Lev 7:19)
    • The person who is in uncleanness [Heb: tumah] and eats the flesh of the sacrifice of peace offerings which belong to the LORD, that person shall be cut off from his people. (Lev 7:20)
    • When anyone touches anything unclean [Heb: tamei], whether human uncleanness, or an unclean animal, or any unclean detestable thing [Heb: sheqets], and eats of the flesh of the sh'lamim which belong to the LORD, that person shall be cut off from his people. (Lev 7:21)

 

General instructions:

  • The person that brings the sh'lamim, his own hands are to bring the offerings by fire to the LORD. (Lev 7:30)
    • He shall bring the fat [chelev] with the breast that the breast may be presented as a wave offering [Heb: tenufah] before the LORD. (Lev 7:30)
  • The priest shall offer up the fat [chelev] in smoke on the altar but the breast shall belong to Aaron and his sons. (Lev 7:31)
  • The person that brings the sh'lamim shall give the right thigh to the priest as a contribution [terumah- "heave offering" (see Other Offerings)] from the sh'lamim. (Lev 7:32)
    • The son of Aaron who offers the blood of the sh'lamim and the fat, the right thigh shall be his portion. (Lev 7:33)
    • G-d has taken the breast of the wave offering [tenuphah] and the thigh of the contribution [terumah] from the sons of Israel from the sh'lamim and given them to Aaron the priest and to his sons as their due [Heb: choq olam] from the sons of Israel. (Lev 7:34)
    • This is that portion which is consecrated to Aaron and that which is consecrated to his sons from the offerings by fire to the LORD in the day when he presented them to serve as priests to the LORD. (Lev 7:35)
    • These the LORD commanded to be given to them from the sons of Israel in the day that he anointed them. It is their due forever throughout their generations. (Lev 7:36)

 

Additional instruction for the zebach is found in Leviticus 17:

  • Any person from the house of Israel or from the aliens who sojourn among them who offers a sacrifice [zebach] and does not bring it to the doorway of the tent of meeting to offer it to the LORD shall be cut off from his people. (Lev17:8)

 

Additional details regarding the requirement for an animal to be "without defect" for the sh'lamim are found in Leviticus 22:

  • If a peace offering is given to fulfill a special vow or as a freewill offering, whether it is from the herd or of the flock, it must be perfect to be accepted: there shall be no defect in it. (Lev22:21)
  • Those that are blind, fractured, maimed, or that have a running sore, eczema, or scabs shall not be offered to the LORD. (Lev 22:22)
  • An animal that has an overgrown or stunted member (LXX has "mutilated ears or tailless") may be presented for a freewill offering but not for a vow. (Lev 22:23)
  • Anything with bruised, crushed, torn, or cut testicles shall not be offered to the LORD. (Lev 22:24)
  • An animal must be at least 8 days old before it can be offered. (Lev 22:27)
  • An animal and its young must not be killed on the same day. (Lev 22:28)

 

 


The חטאת (chata'at- sin offering) is the fourth of the qorbanot described in Leviticus and is found in chapter 4.

Speak to the sons of Israel, saying, 'If a person sins unintentionally in any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, and commits any of them, if the anointed priest sins so as to bring guilt on the people, then let him offer to the LORD a bull without defect as a sin offering [chata'at] for the sin he has committed. (Leviticus 4:2)

 

Note that the sin offering is for unintentional sin and is used whether the sin was committed by an individual (priest or non-priest: Leviticus 4:2-3) or by the entire congregation (Leviticus 4:13).

 

Chata'at
Who Sinned? What is
Offered?
Without
Defect?
Slain By
Whom?
Slain Where? Entrails?
The priest-
(Lev 4:3)
A bull [par ben bakar]- (Lev 4:3) Yes-
(Lev 4:3)
The sinner-
(Lev 4:4)
Before the tent of meeting-
(west of the altar- Lev 4:4)
The fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails, two kidneys, and the liver are burned up as an olah-
(Lev 4:8-10)
The congregation-
(Lev 4:13)
A bull of the herd-
(Lev 4:14)
No mention The priest-
(Lev 4:15)
Before the LORD-
(west of the altar- Lev 4:15)
The entire fat tail, the fat that covers the entrails and is on the entrails, two kidneys, and the liver are burned up as an olah-
(Lev 4:19-21)
A leader [nasi]-
(Lev 4:22)
A male goat-
(Lev 4:23)
Yes-
(Lev 4:23)
The sinner-
(Lev 4:24)
Before the LORD-
(west of the altar- Lev 4:24)
All its fat shall be offered up in smoke on the altar as in the case of the fat of the sacrifice of peace offerings-
(Lev 4:26)
A commoner [am ha-eretz]-  (Lev 4:27)  A female goat-
(Lev 4:28)
Yes-
(Lev 4:28)
The sinner-
(Lev 4:29)
"At the place of the burnt offering"-
(west of the altar- Lev 4:29)
All its fat, just as the fat was removed from the sacrifice of peace offerings shall be offered up in smoke on the altar as an olah for a soothing aroma-
(Lev 4:31)
A female lamb-
(Lev 4:32)
Yes-
(Lev 4:32)
The sinner-
 (Lev 4:33)
"At the place where they slay the burnt offering"-
 (west of the altar- Lev 4:33)
All its fat, just as the fat of the lamb is removed from the sacrifice of the peace offerings, is offered up in smoke -
(Lev 4:35)

Details

SIN OFFERING
  • The sin offering is to be an animal without defect
  • The person who sins is to slay the animal before the LORD
  • The "anointed priest" [Hebrew: ha-cohen ha-mashiach] takes some of the blood and brings it to the tent of meeting and sprinkles it with his finger seven times before the LORD. (Lev 4:5-6)
  • The priest places some of the blood on the horns of the altar of incense
  • The priest pours out the blood of the animal at the base of the altar of burnt offering
  • The same fat, kidneys, and liver that are removed with a peace offering are removed for the sin offering
  • The hide, flesh, head, legs, other entrails, and dung of the bull are taken to a clean place outside the camp (where the ashes of the offerings are poured out) and burned with fire (Lev 4:11-12)

 

 

If the sin is committed by "the whole congregation of Israel" and it "escapes the notice of the assembly" (once more denoting an unintentional sin) then the elders of the congregation place their hands on the head of a single bull on behalf of the entire congregation (Leviticus 4:13-15). The process described above for an individual remains the same.

If the unintentional sin is committed by "a leader" [Heb: נשׂיא (nasi)- "one who is lifted up", a prince] then the offering is a male goat without defect (Leviticus 4:22-23). The leader slays the animal "before the LORD" (verse 24). The process described above for individuals remains the same except that the hide, flesh, head, legs, and other entrails are not mentioned.

The qorban for the priest, the congregation, and a leader must all be male animals whereas the commoner may bring either a female goat or a female sheep (a less expensive offering). This provides us with a picture of G-d's mercy.

 

Law for Chata'at

The "law for chata'at" is found in Leviticus chapter 6 and includes:

  • The chata'at shall be slain in the place where the olah is slain: it is holy. (Lev 6:25)
  • The priest who offers the chata'at shall eat it in a holy place in the court of the tent of meeting. (Lev 6:26)
  • Anyone who touches the flesh of the chata'at will become consecrated (sanctified) [Heb: qadash]. (Lev 27)
  • When any of the blood of the chata'at splashes on a garment then that garment is washed in a holy place. (Lev 6:27)
    • An earthenware vessel in which the garment was boiled shall be broken. (Lev 6:28)
    • A bronze vessel in which the garment was boiled shall be scoured and rinsed in water. (Lev 6:28)
  • Every male among the priests may eat of the chata'at: it is most holy [qadosh qedoshim]. (Lev 6:29)
    • The exception to this rule: the priests may not eat the chata'at from which any of the blood is brought into the tent of meeting to make atonement in the holy place. It is to be burned with fire. (Lev 6:30)

 

 


The אשׁם (asham-guilt offering) is the fifth qorbanot and is described in Leviticus chapter 5.

He shall also bring his guilt offering [asham] to the LORD for his sin which he has committed, a female from the flock, a lamb or a goat as a sin offering. So the priest shall make atonement on his behalf for his sin. (Leviticus 5:6)

 

The KJV translates this as a "trespass offering".

 

The beginning of the chapter provides some examples of ways that people can become "guilty" [asham] and need a "guilt offering" [asham]:

  • A person fails to testify when he hears a public call for witnesses and he is a witness to a matter (Lev 5:1)
  • A person who becomes unclean by touching some unclean thing unawares (Lev 5:2)
  • A person who becomes unclean by touching human uncleanness unawares and then later becomes aware of it (Lev 5:3)
  • A person who makes a rash vow to do something (either evil or good) and he is not paying attention and later becomes aware of it (Lev 5:4)

It is interesting that this is the first offering (indeed the first place in Scripture!) where confession [ידה (yadah)- confess, give thanks] is required:

"So it shall be when he becomes guilty [asham] in one of these, that he shall confess that in which he has sinned [chata]. (Leviticus 5:5)

 

Here are the details of the asham:

Asham
What is
Offered?
Without
Defect?
Slain By
Whom?
Slain Where? Entrails?
A female from the flock, a lamb or a goat- (Lev 5:6) No mention The priest-
(Lev 5:6)
No mention No mention
Two turtle doves or two pigeons (one for a sin offering [chata'at] and one for a burnt offering [olah])-
(Lev 5:7)
No mention The priest-
(Lev 5:8)
The same place as a sin offering-
(Lev 5:9)
No mention
A tenth of an ephah of fine flour for a sin offering [chata'at] without oil or incense-
(Lev 5:11)
No mention The priest-
(Lev 5:12)
The memorial portion is burned up on the altar-
(Lev 5:12)
No mention
If a person acts unfaithfully and sins unintentionally against the LORD's holy things then the price of a ram in silver shall be brought to the LORD for a guilt offering [asham], plus the 120% of the value of the holy thing-
(Lev 5:15)

Yes-
(Lev 5:15)
The priest-
(Lev 5:16)
No mention No mention
If a person sins and does any of the things which the LORD has commanded not to be done, though he was unaware, he shall bring the price of a ram from the flock for a guilt offering [asham]-
(Lev 5:18)
Yes-
(Lev 5:18)
The priest-
(Lev 5:18)
No mention No mention

 

Leviticus chapter 6:2-6 provides some additional examples of willful sin:

If a person sins and acts unfaithfully [ma'al] against the LORD and:

  • deceives his companion in regard to a deposit or a security entrusted to him
  • or through robbery
  • or if he has extorted from his companion
  • or has found what was lost and lied about it and sworn falsely
  • so that he sins in regard to any one of the things a man may do (Lev 6:2-3)

then it shall be when he sins and becomes guilt, that he shall restore:

  • what he took by robbery
  • or what he got by extortion
  • or the deposit which was entrusted to him
  • or the lost thing which he found
  • or anything about which he swore falsely; (Lev 6:4-5)

and

  • he shall make restitution for it in full
  • and add a fifth (an additional 20%) to it
  • and give it to the person to whom it belongs on the day he presents his guilt [asham] offering (Lev 6:5)

and

  • he shall bring to the priest his asham: the value of a ram without defect (Lev 6:6)

 

Law for Asham

The "law for asham" is found in Leviticus chapter 7 and includes:

  • The asham is to be slain in the place where the olah is slain. (Lev 7:2)
  • He (the priest) shall sprinkle its blood around on the altar. (Lev 7:2)
  • He shall offer these up in smoke on the altar as an offering by fire (Lev 7:5)
    • its fat,
    • the fat tail,
    • the fat the covers the entrails (Lev 7:3),
    • the two kidneys and the fat that is on them is on the loins,
    • the lobe of the liver which is removed with the kidneys (Lev 7:4)
  • Every male among the priests may eat of it in a holy place: it is most holy. (Lev 7:6)
  • As is a chata'at so is an asham: there is one law for (both of) them. (Lev 7:7)
  • The priest who makes atonement with it shall have it. (Lev 7:7)

 

 


 

There are other "offerings" that are mentioned in Scripture that are not qorbanot.

 

Wave Offering

The Hebrew word תנוּפה (tenuphah, Strong's #8573) means "swinging, waving, or brandishing"20 and is sometimes translated as a "wave offering". This word is used in 28 verses of the Tanakh. Rather than describing a type of offering it describes what is done with an offering: it is waved before the LORD.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this is described is during the consecration of Aaron and his sons as priests (Exodus chapter 29). During this ceremony a series of objects are placed "in the hands of Aaron and in the hands of his sons" (Exodus 29:24) and they are waved [v'hanepheta] as a "wave offering" [tenuphah] (literally: a waving, or that which is waved).

These items are then taken from their hands and offered up in smoke [v'heqetareta] on the altar. This is not an olah but it is burned up on the altar.

Last use

During Isaiah's description of the return of the Messiah, we see the last use of word tenuphah in the Tanakh.

You will have songs as in the night when you keep the festival, And gladness of heart as when one marches to the sound of the flute, To go to the mountain of the LORD, to the Rock of Israel. And the LORD will cause His voice of authority to be heard, And the descending of His arm to be seen in fierce anger, And in the flame of a consuming fire In cloudburst, downpour and hailstones. For at the voice of the LORD Assyria will be terrified, When He strikes with the rod. And every blow of the rod of punishment, Which the LORD will lay on him, Will be with the music of tambourines and lyres; And in battles, brandishing [tenuphah- waving] weapons, He will fight them. For Topheth has long been ready, Indeed, it has been prepared for the king. He has made it deep and large, A pyre of fire with plenty of wood; The breath of the LORD, like a torrent of brimstone, sets it afire. (Isaiah 30:29-33)

 

Instead of an offering that is waved, this verse shows us that G-d will be waving weapons in battle.

 

Heave Offering

The Hebrew word תרוּמה (terumah, Strong's #8641) means a contribution21 and comes from a root word that means "to raise up"22. It is sometimes translated as a "heave offering". This word is used in 63 verses of the Tanakh.23 Like the "wave offering," this does not describe a type of offering but instead describes what is done with something: it is "raised up" before G-d.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this word is used is when G-d invites the children of Israel to bring a contribution of gold, silver, bronze, blue, purpose, and scarlet material, fine linen, goat hair, rams skins dyed red, porpoise skins, acacia wood, etc for the construction of the tabernacle. (Exodus 25:2-7)

 

Last Use

The last time this word is used in the Tanakh is in Malachi chapter 3:

Will a man rob God? Yet you are robbing Me! But you say, 'How have we robbed You?' In tithes and offerings [terumah]. (Malachi 3:8)

 

Some of these "contributions" are required (e.g. the half-shekel tax of the census- Exodus 30:13-14) and some of them are voluntary (e.g. the objects brought for the construction of the tabernacle- Exodus 35:5).

In the sense that fund-raisers "raise" money, a terumah is a contribution that is raised up for the LORD. In some instances, it is literally lifted up in G-d's presence (Leviticus 10:15).

 

Fire Offering

The Hebrew word אשּׁה (isheh, Strong's #801) is often translates as "offering by fire"24 and comes from a root word that simply means "fire"25. This word is used 68 times in 64 verses of the Tanakh.26 Like the "wave offering," this does not describe a type of offering but instead describes what is done with something: it is "burned in the fire" before G-d.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where this word is used is during the ordination of Aaron and his sons to the priesthood:

You shall offer up in smoke the whole ram on the altar; it is a burnt offering to the LORD: it is a soothing aroma, an offering by fire to the LORD. (Exodus 29:18)

 

Last Use

The last time this word is used in the Tanakh is in 1 Samuel 2 when "a man of G-d" comes to Eli and admonishes him:

Did I not choose them from all the tribes of Israel to be My priests, to go up to My altar, to burn incense, to carry an ephod before Me; and did I not give to the house of your father all the fire offerings of the sons of Israel? (1 Samuel 2:28)

 

Some of the qorbanot are described as ishei (fire offerings).

 

Drink Offering

The Hebrew word נסך (nesek, Strong's #5262) is translated in the NASB as "drink offering"27 and in the KJV as "libation" or "drink offering"28. This word comes from a verb that means "to pour out".29 This word is used 60 times in 58 verses of the Tanakh.30 This word is used to describe the wine that is sometimes "poured out" along with the qorbanot. This is not a separate type of offering but is usually an "accessory" to other types of offerings.

First Use

The first place in Scripture where we find this word is when G-d changes Jacob's name to Israel:

Jacob set up a pillar in the place where He had spoken with him, a pillar of stone, and he poured out a drink offering on it; he also poured oil on it. (Genesis 35:14)

 

Last Use

The last use of this word is made by the prophet Joel in a rather enigmatic verse:

"Yet even now," declares the LORD, "Return to Me with all your heart, And with fasting, weeping and mourning; And rend your heart and not your garments." Now return to the LORD your God, For He is gracious and compassionate, Slow to anger, abounding in lovingkindness And relenting of evil. Who knows whether He will not turn and relent And leave a blessing behind Him, Even a grain offering [minchah] and a drink offering For the LORD your God? (Joel 2:12-14)

 

G-d will leave a minchah and a nesek for Himself?

 


There are additional qorbanot commanded in Scripture but they are almost entirely made up of variations and combinations of qorbanot that have already been described.

Here are some examples:

 

Anointing of the Priests

Leviticus 6:20-30 describes the qorban minchah for the anointing of the priests:

  • A tenth of an ephah of fine flour as a regular minchah half in the morning and half in the afternoon. (Lev 6:20)
  • The flour is to be prepared with oil on a griddle. Once it is baked it is brought and completely burned up as a soothing aroma to the LORD. (Lev 6:21)
  • The anointed priest shall offer it. (Lev 6:22)
  • It shall not be eaten. (Lev 6:23)

 

Lepers Who Are Healed

Leviticus 14 describes a unique ceremony for a leper [metzorah] who has been healed of leprosy [tzara'at]. Note that ceremony does not heal the leper: it is offered after the priest determines the leprosy has already been healed (Leviticus 14:3). This two-step ceremony is used for "cleansing" the person who is already healed. This "first step" of cleaning leprosy is also used for houses (Leviticus 14:49-53) on which G-d puts a mark of leprosy [tzara'at] (Leviticus 14:34).

  • On the day the priest examines the metzorah and determines the tzara'at has been healed the priest gives orders [to a second priest?] to take two live clean birds, cedar wood, a scarlet string, and hyssop. (Lev 14:4)
  • One bird is slain in an earthenware vessel that is held over running water. (Lev 14:5)
  • The second bird, the cedar wood, scarlet string, and the hyssop are dipped in the blood of the bird that was slain. (Lev 14:6)
  • The blood of the slain bird is sprinkled seven times on the person who had leprosy and the person is pronounced clean. (Lev 14:7)
  • The live bird is released over the open field (Lev 14:7)
  • The person then washes their clothes and shaves off all their hair and remains outside the camp for an additional 7 days. (Lev 14:8)

 

For a person who has been cleansed of leprosy the second step of the ceremony is performed eight days later:

Cleansing of the Leper
What is Offered? Without
Defect?
What Type? Notes
      This is offered on the eighth day after the priest declares the person healed of leprosy. (Lev 14:10)
One male lamb
(Lev 14:10)
Yes-
(Lev 1:10)
Guilt offering
[asham]
Offered with a log of oil.
(Lev 14:12)
One male lamb
(Lev 14:10)
Yes-
(Lev 1:10)
Sin offering
[chata'at]
 
One yearling ewe lamb (Lev 14:10) Yes-
(Lev 1:10)
Burnt offering
[olah]
Offered with the grain offering [minchah]
(Lev 14:20)
If the person is poor and unable to afford everything above:   
One male lamb
(Lev 14:21)
no mention Guilt offering
[asham]
Offered with a log of oil.
(Lev 14:24)
One dove or pigeon
(Lev 14:22)
no mention Sin offering
[chata'at]
 
One dove or pigeon
(Lev 14:22)
no mention Burnt offering
[olah]
Offered with the grain offering [minchah]
(Lev 14:31)

 

  • The guilt offering and the log of oil are waved before the LORD and the guilt offering is slain where the sin offering is slain. (Lev 14:13)
  • The priest takes some of the blood of the guilt offering and places it on the right earlobe, the right thumb, and big toe of the right foot of the person to be cleansed. (Lev 14:14) (Interestingly enough this is similar to the ceremony for anointing a priest into the priesthood: see Lev 8:23-24.)
  • The priest then pours some of the oil into the palm of his left hand and uses his right-hand finger to sprinkle some of the oil seven times before the LORD. (Lev 14:15-16)
  • The priest takes some of the oil and places it on the right earlobe, the right thumb, and big toe of the right foot of the person to be cleansed. (Lev 14:17)
  • The remainder of the oil in the priest's right hand is placed upon the head of the person to be cleansed. (Lev 14:18)
  • Then the chata'at (Lev 14:19), the olah and the minchah are offered (Lev 14:20).

 

Cleansing of Uncleanness

Leviticus 15 describes various situations that would cause a person to be unclean.

One scenario is an issue or discharge from a man's body. Once the discharge ceases the man is to wash his clothes and immerse in water and remain unclean until evening (Leviticus 15:10). He is to remain unclean for seven days then offer two pigeons or two turtle doves: one of a sin offering [chata'at] and one for a burnt offering [olah] (Leviticus 15:14-15)

Another scenario is a menstrual discharge from a woman's body. Once the discharge ceases the woman is to remain unclean for seven days then offer two pigeons or two turtle doves: one of a sin offering [chata'at] and one for a burnt offering [olah] (Leviticus 15:29-30)

 

Day of Atonement

There are several offerings that are made on the Day of Atonement [Yom Kippur]. The details of the high priest's service for Yom Kippur fill Leviticus chapter 16. The list below only identifies the sacrifices.

Day of Atonement [Yom Kippur]
What is Offered? Without
Defect?
What Type? Notes
A bull
(Lev 16:3)

no mention

Sin offering
[chata'at]
This is for the high priest.
(Lev 16:6)
A ram
(Lev 16:3)

no mention

Burnt offering
[olah]
This is for the high priest.
(Lev 16:6)
Two male goats
(Lev 16:5)

no mention

Sin offering
[chata'at]
Lots are cast (Lev 16:8) for one to be killed on behalf of the people (Lev 16:15) and the other to be released. (Lev 14:20)
One ram
(Lev 16:5)
no mention Burnt offering
[olah]
This is for the people of Israel.
(Lev 16:5)

 

Unleavened Bread

During the seven days of the Feast of Unleavened Bread [Chag HaMatzot], an "offering by fire" [isheh] (Leviticus 23:8) but a specific type of offering is not described.

 

First Fruits

After Passover comes First Fruits and a one-year-old male lamb without defect is to be offered as an olah (Leviticus 23:12) along with a minchah of two-tenths of an ephah of fine flour mixed with oil and a drink offering of a fourth of a hin of wine. (Leviticus 23:13)

 

Pentecost

Pentecost (in Hebrew called Shavuot) has the requirement of two leavened loaves of bread for a wave offering (Leviticus 23:17). Along with the bread, seven one-year-old male lambs without defect are offered with a bull and two rams are presented as an olah with their minchah and drink offerings. (Leviticus 23:18)

One male goat for a chata'at and two one-year-old male lambs for a sh'lamim are also a part of the qorbanot for this festival. (Leviticus 23:19)

 

Feast of Booths

The seven-day Feast of Booths (in Hebrew called Sukkot) has the requirement of a daily offering by fire.

 


There are special instructions found in Leviticus 7 and Leviticus 17 regarding the fat and blood of animals:

  • The children of Israel shall not eat any of the fat [Heb: chelev] from cattle, sheep, or goats. (Lev 7:23)
  • The chelev from an animal which dies (by implication: dies without slaughtering for food or sacrifice) and the chelev of an animal torn by beasts may be put to any other use but shall not be eaten. (Lev 7:24)
  • Whoever eats the chelev of an animal offered to the LORD shall be cut off from his people. (Lev 7:25)

 

  • The children of Israel shall not eat any blood, either of bird or beast, in any place where they live. (Lev 7:26)
  • Any person who eats any blood shall be cut off from his people. (Lev 7:27)

 

G-d expands upon the commandment to abstain from eating blood:

And any man from the house of Israel, or from the aliens who sojourn among them, who eats any blood, I will set My face against that person who eats blood and will cut him off from among his people. 'For the life of the flesh is in the blood, and I have given it to you on the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood by reason of the life that makes atonement.' Therefore I said to the sons of Israel, 'No person among you may eat blood, nor may any alien who sojourns among you eat blood.' So when any man from the sons of Israel, or from the aliens who sojourn among them, in hunting catches a beast or a bird which may be eaten, he shall pour out its blood and cover it with earth. For as for the life of all flesh, its blood is identified with its life. Therefore I said to the sons of Israel, 'You are not to eat the blood of any flesh, for the life of all flesh is its blood; whoever eats it shall be cut off.' (Leviticus 17:10-14)

 

 

Footnotes

1. Brown-Driver-Briggs' Hebrew Definitions (BDB) [back]
2. New American Standard(r) Updated Edition Exhaustive Concordance (NASEC) of the Bible with Hebrew-Aramaic and Greek Dictionaries. Copyright (c) 1981, 1998 by The Lockman Foundation. All Rights Reserved [back]
3. NASEC [back]
4. BDB [back]
5. NASEC [back]
6. NASEC [back]
7. BDB [back]
8. NASEC [back]
9. BDB [back]
10. NASEC [back]
11. ibid [back]
12. BDB [back]
13. NASEC [back]
14. BDB [back]
15. Qorbanot: Sacrifices and Offerings, taken 4/19/2011 from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/qorbanot.html [back]
16. BDB [back]
17. NASEC [back]
18. BDB [back]
19. NASEC [back]
20. NASEC [back]
21. NASEC [back]
22. NASEC [back]
23. NASEC [back]
24. NASEC [back]
25. NASEC [back]
26. NASEC [back]
27. NASEC [back]
28. Strongs [back]
29. BDB [back]
30. NASEC [back]

Torah Portion

unknown.

 

 

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Today is

Yom Sh'lishi, 16 Tishrei, 5779 - Chol Hamoed Sukkot

Tuesday, September 25, 2018

 

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