The next instance of "covenant" found in Scripture refers to the covenant G-d made at Sinai. As one of the most significant and frequently referenced covenants in Scripture we should perform a careful examination of the details of this covenant.
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The book of Deuteronomy begins with these words:
These are the words which Moses spoke to all Israel across the Jordan in the wilderness, in the Arabah opposite Suph, between Paran and Tophel and Laban and Hazeroth and Dizahab. It is eleven days' journey from Horeb by the way of Mount Seir to Kadesh-barnea. In the fortieth year, on the first day of the eleventh month, Moses spoke to the children of Israel, according to all that the LORD had commanded him to give to them, after he had defeated Sihon the king of the Amorites, who lived in Heshbon, and Og the king of Bashan, who lived in Ashtaroth and Edrei.
The name "Deuteronomy" comes to modern English readers from the Septuagint and the Greek name for this book of the Bible: deuteronomion. The American Heritage Dictionary provides the following definition:
A book of the Bible.
[Late Latin deuteronomium, from Greek deuteronomion, a second law (from (to) deuteronomion (touto), Septuagint mistranslation of Hebrew misne hattora hazzo't, a copy of this law) : deuteros, second + nomos, law.]1
As the American Heritage Dictionary reveals, we do not find here a "second law" but a re-giving of the Law that was delivered at Mt. Sinai (which is also called Mt. Horev). Moshe makes this clear in chapter 5:
In the Torah of Moshe, Deuteronomy 29 and 30 detail the covenant G-d makes "in the land of Moav" with Isra'el.
As was consistent with his forebears, Scripture does not list G-d's covenant with David first. Instead we find David's covenant with Yonatan [Jonathan].
Chapter 18 of the book of 1 Samuel begins with these words:
1 Samuel 18:1-3
Now it came about when he had finished speaking to Saul, that the soul of Jonathan was knit to the soul of David, and Jonathan loved him as himself. Saul took him that day and did not let him return to his father's house. Then Jonathan made a covenant with David because he loved him as himself.
This is the first Davidic covenant spoken of in Scripture. The details of this covenant between David and Yonatan are not provided but it provides a picture of the very close relationship between these two men. This covenant is spoken of in 1 Samuel 20:16 and 1 Samuel 23:18. There are parallel passages in 1 Chronicles for this and other Davidic covenants as well.
Names are not only verbal labels to apply to people and things, they often provide insight into the character and nature of those people. It is in such a way that G-d has revealed His character and nature through the words of Scripture. Not only do we have labels (in both names and titles) that apply to Him and Him alone but through them G-d communicates who He is by condensing His infinite nature ("humbling Himself") into terms that we finite beings can catch a glipse of His glory.
The numbers are an arbitrary system that simply record the order in which the name or title was added.
[T] indicates a title
[N] indicates a name
Numbers in parenthesis indicate how often that name or title is found in Scripture.
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